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Friday, December 14, 2018    

  Alcohol Metabolism DNA Testing: WineGEN™
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WineGEN Alcohol Metabolizm DNA TestThe Alcohol Metabolism DNA Test (WineGEN™) examines your genes for alcohol metabolism using accurate DNA technology analysis and provides you with personalized health information based on current proven scientific studies.

Determining your genotype will provide you with a better understanding about the association between your genes and your:

  • Risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease.
  • Levels of the “good” type of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) known to help protect from heart attack or stroke. HDL carries cholesterol from the body's tissues to the liver. Low levels of HDL can increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a marker of tissue inflammation. Lower levels of CRP lowers your risk of heart disease.

These potential health benefits in moderate drinkers are based on their alcohol metabolic rate which is defined by the genes: ADH2, ADH3, and ALDH2. The ADH2 and ADH3 genes both encode the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme needed to break down alcohol into acetaldehyde in the initial stage of alcohol metabolism. Similarly, ALDH2 encodes the aldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme and is needed to convert acetaldehyde into acetate and water in the final stage of alcohol metabolism. Each of these genes can have a “fast” or “slow” version which determines your overall alcohol metabolism rate. The Wine Gen Test will outline how your alcohol metabolism genes may benefit your health when drinking moderately.

Easy Procedure

  1. Purchase the Wine Gen Test Kit online or over the phone.
  2. Following the Wine Gen Test Kit directions, use the cheek swab to collect buccal cells from the inside of your cheek.
  3. Send the specimen to the laboratory using the pre-addressed, pre-paid envelope included in the kit.
  4. Results are mailed or e-mailed within 3-7 business days. (See Sample WineGEN Report (PDF))

Details of the WineGEN™ Test:

  • WineGEN™ Test determines your variations in the three genes directly involved in alcohol metabolism: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2), Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3), and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2).
  • Each of these genes can have a “fast” or “slow” version that determines your overall alcohol metabolism rate.
  • Benefits from moderate drinking depend on the combinations of “fast” and “slow” versions of the alcohol metabolism genes.
  • Moderate drinkers might decrease their risk of heart attack, increase their “good” cholesterol, and decrease tissue inflammation related to heart disease risks.
  • The test is non-invasive and consists of a simple cheek swab sample that is mailed back to the lab.
  • Once the sample is received by our laboratory, the DNA sample is extracted, purified, amplified and analyzed by our laboratory technicians.
  • The results will be ready within 3-5 business days depending on whether it the test was a “Standard” or “Express” lab service.
  • Our scientists will provide a simple, descriptive interpretation of the results.

WineGEN Benefits:

Moderate drinkers who have the homozygous ALDH2*1 “fast”, homozygous ADH2*1 “slow” and homozygous ADH3*2 “slow” genotype, will benefit by having:

  1. Decreased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease.
  2. up to a 26% increase of the “good” type of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (Hines et al), protecting against heart disease. HDL carries cholesterol from the body's tissues to the liver. Low levels of HDL can increase the risk of heart disease.
  3. Lower levels of inflammatory C-reactive protein (CRP). CRP is a marker for inflamed tissue related to heart disease risks (Furman et al).

Moderate drinkers who have the homozygous ALDH2*1 “fast”, homozygous ADH2*1 “slow” and ADH3*1 “fast” genotype, will benefit by having:

  1. Slight increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (Hines et al).
  2. Slight increased levels of the “good” type of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), protecting against heart disease. HDL carries cholesterol from the body's tissues to the liver. Low levels of HDL can increase the risk of heart disease.

Who uses this test:

The Wine Gen Test is designed for moderate drinkers. Moderate drinkers are males who consume 1-2 drinks or 0.5 oz. of alcohol per day and females who consume 0.5-1 drink or 0.5 oz. of pure alcohol per day. One drink is equal to 12 oz. of beer or 4 oz of wine or 1.5 oz. of 80% proof liquor. This test is not designed for people that binge drink or drink less than the moderate amount per day.

See Sample WineGEN Report (PDF)

References:

  1. Yokoyama A, Omori T. Genetic polymorphism of alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases and risk for esophageal and head and neck cancers. Jpn J Clin Oncol 2003; 33: 111-21.
  2. Brennan P, Lewis S, Hashibe M, Bell DA, Boffetta P, Bouchardy C, Caporaso N, Chen C, Coutelle C, Diehl S, Hayes RB, Olshan AF, Schwartz SM, Sturgis EM, Wei Q, Zavras AI, Benhamou S. Pooled Analysis of Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes and Head and Neck Cancer: A HuGE Review. Am J Epidemiol 2004; 159: 159-16.
  3. Hines LM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Hankinson SE, Sacks F, Rimm EB, Hunter DJ. Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase and the benefit effect of moderate alcohol consumption on myocardial infraction. N Eng J Med 2001; 344: 549-55.
  4. Furman K, Castelnuovo DI, Zito F, Gaetano DE, Iacovello L. Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase 3 and the decrease of hs-C-reactive protein levels by moderate alcohol consumption. J Thromb Haemost 2005; 3: 801-2.
  5. Visapaa JP, Gotte K, Benesova M, Li J, Homann N, Conradt C, Inoue H, Tisch M, Horrmann K, Vakevainen S, Salaspuro M, Seitz HK. Increased cancer risk in heavy drinkers with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele, possibly due to salivary acetaldehyde. Gut 2004; 53: 871-76.
  6. Chen C, Lu R, Chen Y, Wang M, Chang Y, Li T, Yin S. Interaction between the functional polymorphisms of the alcohol-metabolism genes in protection against alcoholism. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 1999; 65; 795-807.

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